Increasingly enhancing rate of human population on the earth in one hand and declination of the earth resources, especially sweet water, on the other hand, thread food security and sustainability of human life on some regions. Therefore, mankind for centuries has tried always to find alternatives to provide food, feed, and fiber. Nomadic lifestyle gradually changed to civilization and farmers always have tried their bests to grow crops in farmlands. However, in many of regions throughout the world societies have faced drought and famines.
Food security which is defined as “availability at all times of adequate, nourishing, diverse, balanced and moderate world food supplies of basic foodstuffs to sustain a steady expansion of food consumption and to offset fluctuations in production and prices" is the foundation of societies sustainable development. Thus, many innovations have been applied for centuries to decline the bad effects due to drought, famines, and climate changes.
Source: University of Wisconsin
Development of closed environment agriculture is one of the alternatives in which many of growers have been attracted to. Greenhouse development for food production under harsh climatic conditions has many advantages for growers; however, because of several concerns, in many countries, farmers prefer to produce food in open spaces even if abroad the geographical borders. The procedure of farming abroad a country is termed overseas agriculture or foreign agriculture. This alternative has to provide the departed farmers with less cost and more sustainable profit margins. Therefore, it is assumed that the destination has relative advantage in comparison with the origin country.
Relative advantages are not limited to the climatic conditions; but, other aspects of the destination country have to be considered when farmers decide to work abroad. Like the other businesses, overseas agriculture involves investors, developers, and many other individuals who are trying their bests to earn the most profit margins; thus, it is reasonable if farmers first find the destinations in where more profit is guaranteed. However, the sustainability of the profit has to be considered, too. Culture is the other criterion that has to be investigated well while cultural convergence may help the investors to find better communication manner. Language, race, religion, or even good historic national relations may help departed farmers to proceed better. Furthermore, good diplomatic relations between the countries facilitate the procedure of investment.
It is necessary also to mention that the countries in which the security services are not well available there is no place to do business. Infrastructures of destination for national/regional/international market accessibility are also very important. Roads, rail roads, water ways, air ways, banking system, trade laws, the laws of residence and job permit, existence of international business enterprises, agricultural mechanization status, guarantee/warranty or after sales services, quarantine laws, trade limitations, customs restrictions, internal laws and other considerations that a foreigner may face to when (s)he resides in the destination have to be considered well. Moreover, health considerations have to be known before site selection because some wide-spread or infectious diseases may make problems for the foreigners who reside in the destination.